Neutral objects are objects that have equal numbers of opposite charges.
Charge is created by the movement/transfer of electrons.
Opposite charges attract while like charges repel.
The wool cloth transfers electrons onto the white rod giving the rod a negative charge.
Electrons can move from atom to atom in conductors or be transferred between objects. Protons cannot move around.
When the rod is brought near the electroscope, the electrons on the electroscope are repelled to the leaves giving them a net negative charge. The spread apart b/c they are both negative. When the rod is taken away the electrons spread out until the leaves become neutral.
When the electroscope is touched by the rod electrons are transferred onto the scope giving it a neg. charge. When the rod is removed the added electrons stay on the scope allowing it to remain charged. This is why the leaves stay apart.
The clear rod is positive b/c silk removes electrons from it. It attracts electrons to the top of the electroscope creating a positive charge in the leaves causing them to repel.
When touched to scope electrons move from scope to rod leaving the scope charged positive.
When the charged scope is touched by a finger the electrons move on/off the scope allowing it to become neutral again.